Paint-T microtrial

Status: completed

In PAINT- T, PhD student Anouck Staff, as part of her PhD research, investigated the effectiveness of different components of behavioural teacher training for children with ADHD symptoms.

The effects of stimulus control (antecedent) and contingency management (consequent) techniques were investigated. The data collection of this study has been completed. In total, teachers of 90 children from all over the Netherlands participated. The results have been written up and published in scientific articles and presented at (inter)national congresses.

We are proud to be able to report that teachers are enthusiastic about the training and that positive results are found from both trainings (antecedent and consequent interventions) on (daily measures of) specific problem behaviour and ADHD as measured by standardised questionnaires, both at the post-measurement and at the follow-up.

Classroom observation

In addition to research into the effectiveness of various techniques, this study also focused on video analyses to analyse class observations of children with and without ADHD symptoms. Here, use was made of a standardised observation system with which inattentive, busy (both motor and verbal) and rebellious behaviour of the child was assessed by a researcher who did not know the child. We also looked at the teacher’s behaviour towards children with and without ADHD symptoms, and what role the teacher-pupil relationship plays in this.

The results of the study can be read under:

Focus group rapport

At the end of the study, we held two focus groups with parents and with teachers and internal supervisors. The aim of these focus groups was to map out how the guidance of children with pressure and unconcentrated behaviour looks like in schools and what the needs are with regard to the use of teacher training for dealing with this behaviour in the classroom. This information is very important for the further development of the training’s. The most important results are described in a report.

Latest publications & news

Attachment in children with ADHD

July 18th, 2022|0 Comments

In the general population, externalising behaviour seems to be associated with insecure attachment and lack of trust in caregiver support. Some studies in ADHD populations have shown that children with ADHD are more likely to [...]

Other projects


In the Paint-T trial, the effectiveness of the components of teacher training was examined by means of a microtrial, and in the follow-up study Paint T trial, the effectiveness of a combined teacher training will be examined.


In PAINT-IPDMA, an individual participant data meta-analysis is being conducted on psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with ADHD. In the follow-up IPDMA study, the psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with behavioural problems are investigated.


The aim of PAINT-S is to investigate the efficacy of an intervention to improve the interaction between children with ADHD and their siblings.


The PAINT-C study maps the care for children with ADHD and/or hyperactive behaviour in the Netherlands at municipalities, CJGs/District Teams and schools and investigates what predicts treatment choices in ADHD.


The study PLOS (Planning at School) investigates the effectiveness of a programme to support secondary school students with planning problems. PLOS consists of two parts PLOS-basic and PLOS-extra.


In PAINT-P the effectiveness of the components of parental training for ADHD was studied and in the follow-up studies Paint-POH, Paint-GZ and Paint-Pc the effectiveness of combined parental training in different settings will be studied.