PAINT-Pc (parent training combined)

Status: completed

Parent training is a proven effective treatment for reducing behavioural problems in children with (characteristics of) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parent training is an important part of regular healthcare in the Netherlands. By researching parent trainings well, we want to improve them more and more. Most parent training courses are fairly long (12 sessions on average). In order to help parents of children with behavioural problems and (characteristics of) ADHD faster and better, we therefore want to research whether parent training can be shorter.

The goal

In this pilotstudy, we offer parents a short crash course in which they learn a number of parenting techniques they can use to influence their child’s behaviour. Based on earlier experiences with brief parent training developed for our microtrial, we wrote a new program for brief parent training. This training will be tested on efficacy in our studies Paint-GGZ and Paint-POH. In this pilotstudy we examine feasibility and satisfaction about the new program by both parents and therapists. Moreover, we want to know how children’s behavior change after parents followed the brief parent training.

For who?

Parents of children with ADHD in the region of Groningen and Veendam. The parent training will take place at Accare in Groningen or Veendam. At this moment, last participants are recruited. Parents can join this study up to end 2022.

Information for parents

The pilotstudy is conducted at Accare Groningen and Veendam. Outside the study, parents cannot receive the short-term parent training. Parents of children who are eligible for the study, will be informed by therapists for participation. Parents can freely decide whether they want to participate or not without any consequences with respect to regular care for their child.

Parents who want to participate give permission and then are contacted by the researchers. Parents can quit the study anytime if they want to.

Research design

All parents who participate in this study get the new brief parent training program. This program consists of three sessions. The first two meetings take place shortly (about one or two weeks) after each other and each lasts two hours. The third meeting, a booster, follows a few weeks after the second meeting and lasts one hour. After the short-term parent training, parents can make use of regular care if necessary.

What do we ask from the participants?

We ask parents who participate to fill in digital questionnaires three times (before, during and after the training), which will take approximately 20-30 mintes. The questionnaires are for the most part also used in regular care (i.e. outside of this study) and are part of the child’s file.

In addition, during four measurement moments (one week before start of the training, one week after session 2, one week before session 3, and three weeks after session 3) parents are called briefly (for a maximum of three minutes) for five days in a row to ask which behavioural problems occurred that day. By means of these daily phone calls we can get a good idea of how children are doing and whether the short-term parent training helps.

We will make audiorecords of the training sessions. These records are made to check whether therapists followed the training program accurately. We will not use any information from these records about yourself or your child.

Why participate?

All parents who participate in the study are offered a short-term, individualized parent training in which they learn various techniques to reduce their child’s problem behavior. his training costs parents (much) less time than a regular parent training. Moreover, the short-term parent training is given by well-trained therapists with a lot of experience with (parents of) children with behavioural problems.

In addition, participating in this research helps other parents and children with behavioural problems. Through the research we learn how we can improve parent training, which may help other parents and children in the future.

Contact or Questions?

If you have any questions please feel free to contact Marijn Nijboer,

The researchers:

Dr. Tycho Dekkers
Accare Child Study Center; Levvel

Prof. dr. Barbara van den Hoofdakker
Accare Child Study Center

Marijn Nijboer
Accare Child Study Center

Other projects


In the Paint-T trial, the effectiveness of the components of teacher training was examined by means of a microtrial, and in the follow-up study Paint T trial, the effectiveness of a combined teacher training will be examined.


In PAINT-IPDMA, an individual participant data meta-analysis is being conducted on psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with ADHD. In the follow-up IPDMA study, the psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with behavioural problems are investigated.


The aim of PAINT-move is to investigate whether it helps children with ADHD to move in the classroom while working. For this purpose, the children use a bicycle under their table for six weeks.


The PAINT-C study maps the care for children with ADHD and/or hyperactive behaviour in the Netherlands at municipalities, CJGs/District Teams and schools and investigates what predicts treatment choices in ADHD.


The study PLOS (Planning at School) investigates the effectiveness of a programme to support secondary school students with planning problems. PLOS consists of two parts PLOS-basic and PLOS-extra.


In PAINT-P the effectiveness of the components of parental training for ADHD was studied and in the follow-up studies Paint-POH, Paint-GGZ, Paint-Pilotstudy and Paint-Wijkteam the effectiveness and feasibilityof combined parental training in different settings will be studied.