Status: inclusion completed

There are children who behave in a rowdy or disruptive manner, or children who find it difficult to concentrate. Some of these children need help. Often they are treated with medication, for example Ritalin. There are also many other treatments, such as parent training and parent counselling or social skills training. We would like to better understand why parents, the child and the treatment provider choose a specific treatment. Therefore, in this study we try to find predictors of treatment choices in ADHD. More clarity on this may ensure that other children and parents receive good care in the future. At Paint -C we also try to bring scientific knowledge about effective ADHD treatments into practice (for parents, teachers, care professionals and municipalities). We do this in the PAINT-I project.

This research is called the PAINT-C research. This stands for ‘Psychosocial ADHD Interventions – care as usual’. Examples of psychosocial treatments are behaviour therapy for the child, parent training or psychoeducation, which is information about ADHD and its treatment. Care as usual’ means ‘the usual care’, with this we mean the treatment and supervision as it appears in daily practice. In the PAINT-C project, we map out how the care for children with ADHD and hyperactive behaviour looks like in daily practice.

It is important to map the current practice of care, because it is still unclear whether children with ADHD and their parents always receive the best and most appropriate care. For example, we do not yet know whether ADHD care is provided as prescribed by the ADHD guidelines. How the care is structured will be mapped using short questionnaires. The data collection of this sub-study has been completed and is currently being written up in scientific articles.

For the dissemination of the knowledge generated by this study, the Academic Workshop ADHD and Pressure Behaviour is an important platform.

The researcher:

Dr. Annabeth Groenman
Accare Child Study Center; Universiteit van Amsterdam

Prof. dr. Barbara van den Hoofdakker
Accare Child Study Center

Dr. Tycho Dekkers
Accare Child Study Center

Elisa Steenweg
Accare Child Study Center

Dominique Doffer
Accare Child Study Center

Suzanne de Jong
Vrije Universiteit van Amsterdam

Latest publications

Attachment in children with ADHD

In the general population, externalising behaviour seems to be associated with insecure attachment and lack of trust in caregiver support. Some studies in ADHD populations have shown that children with ADHD are more likely to [...]

Other projects


In the Paint-T trial, the effectiveness of the components of teacher training was examined by means of a microtrial, and in the follow-up study Paint T trial, the effectiveness of a combined teacher training will be examined.


In PAINT-IPDMA, an individual participant data meta-analysis is being conducted on psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with ADHD. In the follow-up IPDMA study, the psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with behavioural problems are investigated.


The aim of PAINT-S is to investigate the efficacy of an intervention to improve the interaction between children with ADHD and their siblings.


The PAINT-C study maps the care for children with ADHD and/or hyperactive behaviour in the Netherlands at municipalities, CJGs/District Teams and schools and investigates what predicts treatment choices in ADHD.


The study PLOS (Planning at School) investigates the effectiveness of a programme to support secondary school students with planning problems. PLOS consists of two parts PLOS-basic and PLOS-extra.


In PAINT-P the effectiveness of the components of parental training for ADHD was studied and in the follow-up studies Paint-POH, Paint-GZ and Paint-Pc the effectiveness of combined parental training in different settings will be studied.