In the general population, externalising behaviour seems to be associated with insecure attachment and lack of trust in caregiver support. Some studies in ADHD populations have shown that children with ADHD are more likely to be insecurely attached. However, it is less known whether attachment is more related to comorbid ODD and CD symptoms or to the core symptoms of ADHD.
In the article “Self-reported attachment styles in children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)” Rianne Hornstra investigated the explicit expectations of avoidant and anxious attachment and trust in both mother and father in children (8-12 years) with ADHD, compared to typically developing children.

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