Status: inclusion completed

Children with ADHD often have social problems: they are less popular with their peers and quarrel more often than children without ADHD. These social problems are a risk factor for later problems. Current treatments for ADHD often have little effect on these social problems in children with ADHD. Initial indications show that involving peers in the treatment is particularly helpful at the social level. Involving siblings in this is an obvious step.

Our Goal

In the PAINT-S study, we investigate the efficacy of a training in which young children with ADHD learn social behaviour in a playful manner, particularly in the interaction with their sibling without ADHD. The training focuses on giving compliments, sharing, helping each other and solving problems together.

Giving compliments
Helping each other
Solving problems


Two siblings per family participate, one with and one without ADHD. The child without ADHD will attend seven training sessions, and the child with ADHD four. All training sessions are held at home. During the training sessions, the children will learn the correct way to display social behaviour on the basis of example films of desired and undesired behaviour. They will then practice the learned skill through play, first with the therapist and then with their sibling. The child without ADHD will also learn how to playfully teach this behaviour to his/her brother/sister with ADHD and praise him/her.

At the end of the study, it will be examined whether the child with ADHD shows more socially desirable behaviour and less negative behaviour. The children will receive a small reward at the end of the examination.

What are the benefits of participation?

Siblings learn in a playful way how to relate to each other in a more positive way. Parents learn how they can stimulate positive social behaviour among their children. Furthermore, participating families contribute to knowledge about effective interventions for children with ADHD.

The researchers:

Prof. dr. Barbara van den Hoofdakker
Accare Child Study Center

Dr. Tycho Dekkers
Accare Child Study Center; Levvel

Dominique Doffer
Universiteit van Amsterdam

Elisa Steenweg
Accare Child Study Center

Other Projects


In the Paint-T trial, the effectiveness of the components of teacher training was examined by means of a microtrial, and in the follow-up study Paint T trial, the effectiveness of a combined teacher training will be examined.


In PAINT-IPDMA, an individual participant data meta-analysis is being conducted on psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with ADHD. In the follow-up IPDMA study, the psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with behavioural problems are investigated.


The aim of PAINT-S is to investigate the efficacy of an intervention to improve the interaction between children with ADHD and their siblings.


The PAINT-C study maps the care for children with ADHD and/or hyperactive behaviour in the Netherlands at municipalities, CJGs/District Teams and schools and investigates what predicts treatment choices in ADHD.


The study PLOS (Planning at School) investigates the effectiveness of a programme to support secondary school students with planning problems. PLOS consists of two parts PLOS-basic and PLOS-extra.


In PAINT-P the effectiveness of the components of parental training for ADHD was studied and in the follow-up studies Paint-POH, Paint-GZ and Paint-Pc the effectiveness of combined parental training in different settings will be studied.


Latest publications